Containment of Radioactivity
The target monolith will provide two barrier layers of containment against the escape of volatile and airborne radioactive materials, both at normal operation and in case of incidents, and will be continuously vented and filtered. The unavoidable residual escape of radioactive effluents in amounts below the limits authorised in the operational license will be ventilated, collecting these gases from all facility buildings housing equipment including the target.
The parts exposed to the proton beam and the high-radiation environment around the target will have a limited lifetime ranging from a few months to several years, which is short compared with the several decades of ESS operation. These components will also become highly radioactive during operation. Their periodic replacement, handling and storage before disposal will be achieved using remote control and adequate protective equipment, including hot cells and casks at various locations around the target monolith.
The Cooling System
The ESS proton beam represents a five-fold leap in power over the next most powerful neutron spallation sources. Cooling presents considerable challenges and will be addressed with a helium-gas cooling loop.